Reuben's Home Inspection Blog


Home Inspection Checklist: Don't Miss The Big Stuff

For home buyers interested in conducting their own home inspection, here's a list of larger items to look out for while viewing houses.  This is a cursory overview of some of the larger problems that are frequently identified during home inspections.  Of course, this is no substitute for a professional home inspection, but it's a great start.

Roof Problems

While many roof problems can only be identified by actually walking the roof or leaning a ladder up against the eaves, some defects can be easily seen from the ground.  Be sure to view all sides of the roof.  In older neighborhoods with tall houses that are close to each other, it may be necessary to walk a fair distance down an alley to get a good look at the roof.

Look for any irregularities with the roof: shingles that look curled from the ground indicate an old roof.  This type of curling almost always happens on the south side first, so pay special attention to that side.  The photos below show examples of some particularly nasty roofs.

Curled Shingles

Severely Deteriorated Shingles

Look out for cracks in shingles as well.  These typically won't be visible on second story roofs, but it's sometimes possible to spot these on single-story roofs.

Cracks in shingles

Mis-matched or patched shingles, missing shingles, and shingles sliding out of place typically indicates an improper installation.  The photo below shows a horrible patch job. A 'new' roof doesn't mean a 'good' roof.

Hack patch job

Always look for loose shingles in valleys.

Loose shingle

A large section of the roof below had been patched. Why was the roof patched to begin with? A patched roof is often the result of an improper installation that has led to shingles coming loose.

Mis-matched shingles

Shingles without neat rows may have been installed that way, but it may also mean that shingles are beginning to slide down.  Closer inspection of this roof revealed that the shingles were improperly nailed, causing the shingles to slide down.

Slipping Shingles

Here's a more extreme example of sliding shingles.

Sliding Shingles

Don't forget to view all sides of the roof.  This next roof was too high to be safely inspected with a 28' extension ladder, but a walk down the alley revealed considerable, obvious damage.

Damaged shingles

Damaged shingles close-up

Chimney Problems

Chimney repairs can be another large expense.  When buying an older house with a masonry chimney, take a close look at it.  Missing mortar between the bricks typically won't be a major repair, but missing bricks and large cracks in the walls can sometimes mean the upper portion of the chimney needs to be re-built.

Missing b bricks at chimney

Cracked chimney

As with roofs, be sure to look at every side of every chimney.  The chimney shown below had been redone to look good from the street, but didn't look so great from the back yard.

Incomplete Chimney Repair

Problems with the chimney flashing, crown, and interior flues are difficult to identify from the ground.


Hardboard siding begins to swell and then literally fall apart when it rots. Deteriorated hardboard siding is usually quite easy for anyone to spot. Check the north sides, areas not protected by soffits (overhangs), and the areas closest to the ground first; these will be the first areas to rot. If unsure about an area, push on it with your finger, but not too hard.  When hardboard siding is badly rotted, it gets mushy.

Cracked hardboard siding

Hardboard siding rotted

Rotted hardboard siding

Severely rotted hardboard siding

Defects with newer stucco siding are difficult to identify from the exterior, but stains below windows are an obvious warning sign that there may be hidden damage.

Stains below windows

Problems with others types of siding usually aren't as easy to spot without a trained eye.


Rotted wood windows that have been patched may look fine from a distance, but it's usually easy to spot damaged areas when up close.  Give the windows a little poke with your finger when rot is suspected.  Sometimes the patchwork will be paper-thin, so don't poke too hard.

Rotted Windows

Aluminum clad wood windows can completely rot apart on the inside, yet leave no visible evidence at the exterior.  These windows can be pushed on or squeezed to help determine if there is internal rotting.  The windows that will rot first are the ones that aren't protected by soffits (overhangs).

Rotted Aluminum Clad Windows

In the photo below, we pulled some of the cladding back to show severely rotted wood inside the sash.

Rotted Aluminum Window

Cranking windows open and looking at them from underneath can sometimes reveal water damage.

Rotted aluminum clad window


Always take a look underneath decks.  Sometimes decks will have a fresh coat of paint that conceals severe rotting, which may be quite visible from below.

Rotted deck joists 2

Also, take a step back from the deck and look for sagging, which may indicate a structural problem with the construction of the deck.  The deck shown below had a very noticeable sag in the middle which wasn't obvious from up close.

Sagging Deck

Click this link for more info on deck inspections.

Water Management

This one is huge.  Make sure water is properly directed away from the house.  Look for proper gutters, downspouts, and downspout extensions.  They're not required, but they certainly help.  Also, check to make sure the earth slopes away from the house.  Water draining toward a house can lead to big water problems in the basement or crawl space, as well as foundation problems.

Look at roof lines as well; if water gets concentrated against the house, the potential for water intrusion goes up.  The photo below shows a good example of several roof surfaces concentrating water in to a small area right up against the house.

Water concentrated against house

Foundation Problems

Look for cracks in the foundation walls.  Generally speaking, cracks larger than 1/4" in concrete block walls and cracks larger than 1/8" in poured concrete walls are reason for concern.

Finger in crack

Cracks that are large enough to put your hand through shouldn't be cause for concern.  They're cause for repair.

Huge cracks in wall

Cracks that have been patched and have opened up again are reason for concern, as they typically indicate ongoing movement.  Horizontal cracks are more concerning than vertical cracks.

Patched horizontal cracks

Offsets in the foundation walls are cause for concern as well.  The house shown below ended up being demolished.

Huge foundation offsets

Wet Finished Basements

It's usually quite easy to figure out if a finished basement has moisture problems if you're willing to do just a little bit of digging.  Walk around the exterior of the home first, and look for any areas without good water management; for the most part, this means negative grade and missing downspout extensions.  When downspouts discharge next to the house, there's a good chance that there will be a water intrusion issue at about the same place inside the basement.

Basement water intrusion staining always starts at the base of the foundation walls.  Pay special attention to inside corners for signs of water intrusion.  Loose for stains at the baseboard trim, and stained or patched wall areas.  Look behind furniture, and look underneath carpet if possible.

The photos below shows stained wood paneling and black, wet carpet tack strips in the same place.

Stained paneling

wet tack strips

The photos below, from the same house, show black staining (mold?) at the drywall in one of the inside corners, as well as staining at the baseboard trim.

Stained baseboard trim

Wet tack strips 2

If there are in-floor ducts, try to look inside the ducts at every floor register.  If water has entered this ductwork, it's a serious problem.

Water in duct

Water in duct 2

Plumbing - Galvanized Steel Pipes

Galvanized steel water pipes were used on older houses up until about 1950.  The problem with galvanized pipes is that they rust on the inside, making the pipe diameter smaller and smaller over time.  This leads to less and less water flow at the plumbing fixtures.  Galvanized pipes are also more prone to leakage, typically at the joints.

Galvanized pipes

To test water flow at older houses, turn on the laundry sink faucet all the way and then check water flow at the other plumbing fixtures throughout the house. On houses with galvanized pipes, we'll frequently find no water flow at the second floor plumbing fixtures when performing this test.  Once it gets to that point, it's time to think about new pipes.

The photo below shows a first floor kitchen sink faucet turned on all the way; if you look carefully, you can see a few water droplets in the air.  The repair for this condition is to have a plumber replace the old galvanized steel pipes.

Minimal water flow at kitchen sink faucet

The pipe coming from the street to the house is called the supply pipe; when this pipe is galvanized, there's a good chance that water flow throughout the house will be minimal.  The fix for this is expensive; it means digging up the yard and replacing the pipe out to the street.

On older houses, check below the water meter in the basement to verify the supply pipe is something other than galvanized steel.  The photo below shows an example of a galvanized water supply pipe.

Galvanized water supply pipe

As with galvanized steel water pipes, galvanized steel drain pipes also rust on the inside.  This accumulation of rust reduces the pipe diameter and can lead to clogged drains and leaks.

Rusted steel drain


Galvanized steel plumbing vents also rust out; sometimes they may completely rust through and allow sewer gas in to the home, but the vents are typically concealed.

Rust holes in galvanized steel vent

The eventual fix for this is replacement of the old steel drains and vents with new ABS or PVC pipes.  The first drain to get clogged will always be the kitchen sink drain.  Run water down the kitchen sink for about ten minutes to make sure it drains properly.

Neglected Furnaces / Boilers

Watch out for excessive rust, debris, and especially black soot or scorching at the furnace or boiler.  These typically indicate then need for service or replacement.

Rusted boiler

Dirty Furnace

Electric Hazards

FPE Stab-Lok electric panels are a latent fire hazard.  These panels can be easily identified by a label on the panel that says "Stab-Lok".  We always recommend replacement of these panels.

Stab-Lok Panel

In houses built from 1965-1974, look for aluminum wiring, or more specifically, aluminum branch circuit conductors.  These are a larger concern that can involve expensive repairs.  It's not always possible to identify aluminum wiring without opening the electric panel, but if aluminum conductors are used with NM cables (aka 'Romex'), it will say "aluminum" right on the cable sheathing.  Look for this in the garage or basement.

Aluminum cable

Fuse panels under 100 amps are typically inadequate for today's houses.

30 amp service with two fuses

To help determine the size of the electric service, look on the door of the electric panel.  Most old fuse panels will either be 60 amp or 100 amp.

Knob & Tube wiring is an obsolete two-wire system typically found in pre-1930's homes, and is easily identified by the porcelain knobs & tubes that are used to hold and protect the wires.    When present, knob & tube wires will usually be visible in attics and unfinished basements. The photo below shows an example of exposed knob & tube wiring at the ceiling in a basement.

knobs & tubes

At best, the remaining knob and tube wiring is in good condition and most of it has been replaced.  Be aware, however, that many home insurance companies charge a premium or refuse to insure homes with knob & tube wiring, even if it's still in pristine condition.

At worst, the knob & tube wiring has been exposed to high temperatures for long periods of time, causing the insulation on the wires to fall apart, leaving exposed conductors that create a shock and fire hazard. Examples of hazardous knob & tube wires are shown below.  Yes, these wires were live at the time of the inspection.

Frayed knob & tube wires in light fixture

Frayed Knob and Tube Wires in attic

Interior Stains

Stains at the base of patio doors typically indicates water intrusion and rot.  Step on the floor next to patio doors to make sure the wood is solid.  The photo below shows major rotting at the floor by the patio door.

Rotted patio door floor

Water stains on windows are usually caused by condensation, which isn't a major concern, but stains that are caused by exterior water intrusion are a larger concern.  To help determine the difference, click this link on window stains.  The photo below comes from that post, showing an example of window staining caused by water leakage from the exterior.

window stain

Home Inspection ChecklistHopefully these items will give potential home buyers a good starting point.  

To make this post a little bit more portable, here's a one-page Home Inspection Checklist in pdf format that may be helpful.  

Please share!


Reuben Saltzman, Structure Tech Home Inspections


Comment balloon 25 commentsReuben Saltzman • May 02 2013 03:13AM


Hi Reuben,

Man this is a big post. :-). Home owner s or buyers will need to seek out and use a certified Home Inspection inspector rather than a "do it them selves" kind of thing.

They just might wan to put you out of business.

Have a great day in Minneapolis.

Best, Clint McKie

Posted by Clint Mckie, Desert Sun Home, Comm. Inspection 1-575-706-5586 (Desert Sun Home, commercial Inspections) about 6 years ago

There's so much here it's hard to comment!  I like the PDF idea at the end, but some of those things are best checked by a home inspector.

I too check things, roofs and decks, from a distance to get a feel for things, in addition to up close.  Often that far perspective reveals stuff.

Great talking with you yesterday.  Remember, 2:30 EDT is my lay-in-the-sun-nap time...


Posted by Jay Markanich, Home Inspector - servicing all Northern Virginia (Jay Markanich Real Estate Inspections, LLC) about 6 years ago
Great post! I agree with Jay - a lot to comment on!
Posted by Carol Zingone, Global Realtor in Jax Beach, FL - ABR, CRS, CIPS (Berkshire Hathaway Home Services Florida Network Realty) about 6 years ago
Reuben, this is a great post and one that all agents need to keep in mind when their buyers claim they are capable of doing their own inspections. If for no other reason, a licensed, insured home inspector should be used, because, if I was a seller, I would refuse to allow a buyer to get on my roof, for fear of serious liability if the buyer was injured in the process of the inspection. Great photos for your examples.
Posted by Sandy Padula and Norm Padula, JD, GRI, Presence, Persistence & Perseverance (HomeSmart Realty West & Geneva Financial, Llc.) about 6 years ago

Thanks for sharing the photos and for the tips. It is important for buyers to hire a home inspector.

Posted by Gita Bantwal, REALTOR,ABR,CRS,SRES,GRI - Bucks County & Philadel (RE/MAX Centre Realtors) about 6 years ago

I have a property owner whose house is going vacant and I am having the thresholds sealed and repainted - great water penetration area that is often overlooked

Posted by Wallace S. Gibson, CPM, LandlordWhisperer (Gibson Management Group, Ltd.) about 6 years ago

This is an awesome post full of great info for both sellers and buyers... Excellent...

Posted by Beth and Richard Witt, Long Island Cash Home Buyer 516-330-6940 (Long Island Cash Home Buyer) about 6 years ago

Excellent post Rueben. Great information presented very well.

Posted by Marty Gabryszak, Pinehurst NC Home Inspector (Pillar To Post Professional Home Inspection) about 6 years ago

Who in their right mind would ever say, "I'll inspect it myself." ??That's just crazy talk. Thanks for the longest post in history.

Posted by Scott Seaton Jr. Bourbonnais Kankakee IL Home Inspector, The Home Inspector With a Heart! (SLS Home Inspections-Bradley Bourbonnais Kankakee Manteno) about 6 years ago

Reuben, this is a little overwhelming. I would call a home inspector who knows what they are doing and can point out these things.

Posted by Michael Setunsky, Your Commercial Real Estate Link to Northern VA about 6 years ago

Thanks for the post.  It gives me more knowledge and awareness as a Real Estate Agent.  It is also why I recommend to Buyers that they should have a Home Inspection completed by a certified Home Inspector.  Margaret C.

Posted by Margaret C. Taylor, St Marys/Calvert/Charles MD Real Estate Agent (Century 21 New Millennium MD) about 6 years ago

Great suggestions, but I still always strongly suggest to my clients that they use a professional for a home inspection. And if they choose not to, they sign off on a document for me saying they've been advised but have chosen not to. Otherwise, just too much potential liability for us agents.

Posted by Nina Hollander, Your Charlotte/Ballantyne/Waxhaw/Fort Mill Realtor (Coldwell Banker Residential Brokerage ) about 6 years ago

This blog definitely highlights the need for a professional home inspector! Wowza. That is an incredibly long list full of what-ifs that would make me super nervous if it were my potential home. I wonder if a seller would be willing to have repairs done on the word of a homemade inspection!

Posted by Jenn Morson, Licensed Referral Agent and ASP - Team Woda (Metro Referrals) about 6 years ago

Clint - did I include enough photos?  ;-)  This list certainly isn't a substitute for a home inspection; just some helpful stuff that might let someone know when they might be looking at some larger repairs.

Jay - heck, I say these are all best checked by a home inspector.  I pay attention to google analytics, however, and there are a ridiculous amount of search queries for home inspection checklists.  Just giving the people what they want :).    It was good catching up with you too, thanks for reaching out.

Carol -  thanks.

Norman - definitely.  I tried to only include stuff that a home buyer might be able to see from the ground, and I didn't even mention the attic.

Gita - thanks, and agreed.

Posted by Reuben Saltzman, Delivering the Unbiased Truth. (Structure Tech Home Inspections) about 6 years ago

Wallace - yes, thresholds can be a huge source of water intrusion.

Richard & Beth - thanks!

Marty - thanks!

Scott - ha!  I try to tell the other guys in my company to keep stuff short and sweet.  I guess I'm no good at that myself.  You're certainly picking up the underlying message here; home inspectors have a ton of stuff to look for, need to know a lot of info about a lot of trades.

Michael - I'm all for that.

Posted by Reuben Saltzman, Delivering the Unbiased Truth. (Structure Tech Home Inspections) about 6 years ago

Margaret - thats a good plan.

Nina - I completely agree. 

Jenn - this list is definitely not a substitute for a home inspection; just a cursory overview of some of the larger items identified during home inspections.

Posted by Reuben Saltzman, Delivering the Unbiased Truth. (Structure Tech Home Inspections) about 6 years ago

THats a very extensive list and very helpful to potential homebuyers however I still wouldn't substitute it for an actual inspection.

Posted by Marc McMaster, Putting my clients before myself (RE/MAX Centre Realty) about 6 years ago

That was a huge post packed with lot's of great information!

Posted by Frank Harper, Broker/Owner, Realtor, GRI, SFR. (Idaho Family Real Estate) about 6 years ago

Each and every one of these examples -- roof, siding, water, chimney . . . could (and should) be a post all its own.  Good job Reuben!!

Posted by Carla Muss-Jacobs, RETIRED (RETIRED / State License is Inactive) about 6 years ago


   Great collection of pictures and commentaries.  Thanks!


Posted by John J. Woods (Aardvark Appraisals) about 6 years ago

Dang Reuben, That was a ton of fun there. I truly like the galvanized pipe stalactite.

Posted by Donald Hester, NCW Home Inspections, LLC (NCW Home Inspections, LLC) about 6 years ago

Great informaiton thank you for sharing it with us.  I still have lots to learn in this area

Posted by Ray Stockwell, Director of Marketing (ZipperAgent) about 6 years ago

Great inspection checklist Reuben, I have seen a few roofs like these, what I am wondering is why did they repair half of the chimney and not do the whole job while they were up there.

Posted by Bob Crane, Forestland Experts! 715-204-9671 (Woodland Management Service / Woodland Real Estate, Keller Williams Fox Cities) about 6 years ago
Love the great mix of photos and comments!
Posted by Dennis Barnes, Great Commercial Property & Home Inspector (Barnes Inspection Services) about 6 years ago

Certainly a good inspecton is one of the most vital parts of a transaction.

Posted by Sally K. & David L. Hanson, WI Realtors - Luxury - Divorce (EXP Realty 414-525-0563) over 1 year ago